In the call, the parties agreed to "continue contacts including on US-Russia bilateral agenda," Russian Foreign Ministry said in a statement.
US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov held a phone call late Monday to discuss bilateral relations and the recent developments in Syria.
Lavrov urged US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson to prevent "provocations" against Assad regime forces, the foreign ministry added.
In the call initiated by Tillerson, Lavrov "called on Washington to take steps to prevent provocations against Syrian government forces carrying out operations against terrorists," it said in a statement.
The communiqué was issued after Israel said it had fired on Syrian regime positions on Sunday in response to projectiles from Syria that landed in the occupied Golan Heights.
The incident occurred close to a zone of fierce clashes between regime forces and rebels.
Lavrov and Tillerson also spoke of the need to "strengthen the ceasefire in Syria" and "intensify the fight against terrorist groups," the statement added.
A new round of peace negotiations on Syria is scheduled to take place in the Kazakh capital of Astana on July 4-5.
The six-year conflict has killed more than 320,000 Syrians and forced millions from their homes.